Segnalazione di un volume sull’europeizzazione dei sistemi scolastici. Testo in inglese di interesse per chi è coinvolto nei progetti europei o in quelli internazionali.
Dove si colloca l’Italia? Con un piede dentro e con uno fuori dal sistema scolastico europeo. Il sistema scolastico italiano soffre di un grave ritardo. L’Italia è sotto-istruita rispetto ai principali paese europei, come lo dimostra assai bene l’indagine PISA. Il paese era già sotto-istruito 150 anni fa e lo è tuttora. Non c’è da cantare vittoria. Nel frattempo gli altri sistemi scolastici europei evolvono nella stessa direzione, diventano vieppiù simili tra loro mentre si crea uno spazio scolastico europeo nel quale l’Italia è assente. In questo volume ci sono saggi scritti prevalentemente da autori svedesi di grido. La Svezia fu negli anni Cinquanta alla testa del movimento in favore del prolungamento dell’istruzione oltre la scuola primaria e in favore della scuola media unica. Gli Svedesi restano sempre molto attenti a queste tendenze. Spingono a differenza dei Finlandesi che invece non se ne disinteressano e dei Norvegesi che hanno altri interessi ed il cui sistema scolastico annaspa rispetto a quello dei vicini. La presentazione è in inglese e il volume è in inglese.
Moltissimi sono ancora convinti del contrario, ovverosia che i sistemi scolastici nazionali siano tra loro molto dissimili. Invece la realtà è un altra. Al di là della facciata, ossia delle divergenze storiche e amministrative, i sistemi scolastici sono molto più simili tra loro che dissimili. I curricoli si assomigliano sempre di più e nelle classi l’insegnamento e la didattica sono quasi le stesse. Invece diversa è la gestione del corpo insegnante, della formazione degli insegnanti , ma tutto ciò non impedisce ai dirigenti e agli insegnanti si praticare le stesse cose. Ovunque in autunno ci sono lezioni sui funghi o sul vino, laddove c’è la vigna, e queste lezioni sono quasi del tutto simili. Questo non è che un esempio. Le LIM hanno dilagato ovunque ma si utilizzano in generale male in tutti i sistemi scolastici; il corsivo è sparito di colpo in tutti i sistemi scolastici, per anni in tutte le scuole si è praticata la matematica moderna ed ora si insegna una seconda lingua. Gli insegnanti eseguono e ubbidiscono.
Transnational Policy Flows in European Education
the making and governing of knowledge in the education policy field
Edited by ANDREAS NORDIN & DANIEL SUNDBERG
2014 paperback 240 pages US$64.00
International comparisons of educational achievements have come to play a crucial role in understanding the educational field today. This book provides an in-depth analysis of the development of international large-scale assessments. The lives and achievements of transnational educational experts who paved the way for these assessments are discussed as well as the rise of institutions specialising in the making and managing of educational statistics such as the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievements (IEA) and the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) supported by the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Emerging transnational policy spaces and their effect on national education policy are also problematised using the concept of ‘Europeanisation’ as a theoretical reference.
By bringing together historical and contemporary comparisons using different methodological approaches the goal of this book is to contribute to a widened understanding of educational policy-making as an open-ended and complex process that cannot be reduced to a rational process of linear implementation, or a deduction of world models of education. Instead the result of this book shows that transnational policy flows in many directions in European education today and is being negotiated, translated, interpreted or even contested when recontextualised in different national and/or local arenas.
This book addresses crucial questions on how the landscape and its borders of educational knowledge and policy-making have changed over time and place and how the map is currently redrawn in the contemporary globalised educational context. It provides important navigational knowledge for students, teachers and researchers as well as policy-makers at different levels.
Andreas Nordin & Daniel Sundberg. Introduction. The Making and Governing of Knowledge in the Education Policy Field
INTRODUCING EXPERT KNOWLEDGE IN EDUCATIONAL POLICY MAKING
Martin Lawn. Nordic Connexions: comparative education, Zilliacus and Husén, 1930-1960
Ulf P. Lundgren. The Pedagogy of Hilda Taba and the Progressive Movement in Education
Seamus Hegarty. From Opinion to Evidence in Education: Torsten Husén’s contribution
CONCEPTUALISING KNOWLEDGE IN AN EMERGENT EUROPEAN EDUCATIONAL POLICY SPACE
Kirsten Sivesind. Education in the Spirit of Archimedes: pertaining to the buoyancy of PISA
Christian Lundahl. The Book of Books: encyclopaedic writing in the science of education in the 1980s
Daniel Pettersson. The Development of the IEA: the rise of large-scale testing
EUROPEANISATION AND ITS EFFECT ON NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL POLICY
Nafsika Alexiadou. Policy Learning and Europeanisation in Education: the governance of a field and the transfer of knowledge
Andreas Nordin. Europeanisation in National Educational Reforms: horizontal and vertical translations
Ninni Wahlström. The Changing Role of the State in a Denationalised Educational Policy Context
Eva Forsberg & Daniel Pettersson. European Educational Transfer and Curriculum Displacement: the Swedish case
Eva Forsberg & Henrik Roman. The Art of Borrowing in Swedish Assessment Policies: more than a matter of transnational impact
Nafsika Alexiadou is Professor of Educational Work at Umeå University, Sweden. Before moving to Umea in 2012 Nafsika worked for over a decade at Keele University, UK and, for a short time, at the University of Macedonia, Greece. Her main research interests and publications are in the area of international and transnational educational policy, and in the transformations of education systems under pressure from international institutions. In particular she analyses educational governance in the European Union, the relationships between the national and transnational levels of policy making, and the issues of policy learning and policy convergence. She is also involved in research on the changing nature of public education through marketisation and privatisation in Sweden and the UK, and their implications for social inclusion and social justice. She is co-author, with Colin Brock, of Education Around the World: a comparative introduction (London: Bloomsbury, 2013).
Eva Forsberg is Professor in Education at Uppsala University, Sweden. Her research focuses on the interface between educational policy, practice and research from a curriculum theoretical perspective. Currently Forsberg is involved in projects on: education governance and evaluation; consequences of the growing homework support market; higher education research and doctoral education leadership; and effects of educational research reviews. Forsberg teaches courses in curriculum theory, education governance, evaluation and comparative education. She is also co-editor of the Nordic Journal of Studies in Educational Policy.
Seamus Hegarty is a visiting professor at the University of Warwick. He served as Chair of IEA (International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement) for eight years, from 2005 to 2012. He was Director of the National Foundation for Educational Research in England and Wales for 12 years, from 1993 to 2005. He is a member of the Learning Metrics Task Force organised by the Brookings Institution and the UNESCO Institute of Statistics; he chaired the Standards Working Group for the Task Force. He is founder editor of the European Journal of Special Needs Education, now in its 29th year, and edited Educational Research for 12 years. He has authored or co-authored more than 20 books and numerous book chapters and papers. He has evaluated and advised on research for universities and national authorities in many countries, with current or recent commitments in Chile, Finland, Ireland, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway and South Africa.
Martin Lawn is an honorary professor in the School of Education, University of Edinburgh and an honorary senior research fellow in the Department of Education, University of Oxford. He works in historical sociology in the field of education, with a particular interest in the European area. He has recently completed research projects on the rise of intelligence testing, and the use of data and inspection to manage education systems. Recent books include Disciplines of Education: their role in the future of education research (with John Furlong) (London: Routledge, 2013); The Rise of Data in Education Systems: collection, visualisation and use (Comparative Histories of Education Series; Oxford: Symposium Books, 2014); and Europeanizing Education: governing a new policy space (with Sotiria Grek) (Oxford: Symposium Books, 2012).
Christian Lundahl is Professor in Education at Karlstad University and Associate Professor in the Department of Education, Stockholm University. Lundahl specialises in the history of assessments, evaluation and Swedish educational research. Lundahl is presently involved in research projects concerning the production and internationalisation of data in education systems. He is also part of a project studying the effects of grading on students learning in the Swedish school system. He is a member of the Teacher Education Board at Örebro University, and he has worked as a consultant to the National Agency of Education and the National Agency for School Inspection. Lundahl teaches in teacher education, in the guidance and counselling program, and in the training programme for principals at Karlstad University and Stockholm University.
Ulf P. Lundgren is Professor Emeritus at Uppsala University. He has held a professor’s chair at Aalborg University, Denmark, and at the Insitute of Education, Stockholm University, where he also been Vice Chancellor. He is a board member of the Mid Sweden University, the University of Gothenburg and the Faculty of Educational Sciences, Oslo University. Lundgren has worked extensively establishing bridges between the fields of educational science and educational policy-making as the Director General for the the National Agency for Education and as the General Secretary for the Swedish Research Council. Additionally, Lundgren has been commissioned for the committee for the National Curriculum; the Committee on a National Curriculum for pre-school Education and Compulsory Schooling; the Parliamentary Committee on the Education Act and a new legal system for education in Sweden. He has also played a major role internationally as the chairman for CERI/OECD, expert for OECD, the World Bank and the Education ministries of France, Norway, Sweden, and Portugal. He is currently involved in research in the fields of curriculum theory, evaluation, educational history and educational policy.
Andreas Nordin is senior lecturer in education at Linnaeus University in Växjö, Sweden. His main research interest and publications are in the area of transnational and national educational policy and how these arenas relate to each other. In particular he analyses educational governance in the European Union in relation to educational reforms in Sweden. He is currently involved in a research project entitled ‘Who Has Governed the Swedish School? Municipality, School and State during 60 Years of Swedish School Reforms in a World of Change’ funded by the Swedish Research Council. It is a comparative analysis of municipal school policy in Sweden during1950 2010 focusing on the balance between national and municipal governing within municipal school policy and on the municipal variation in making school policy.
Daniel Pettersson is a senior lecturer in Education at the University of Gävle, Sweden. Pettersson specialises in the history, dissemination and use of international large-scale assessments, in policy narratives and in the history of education. He is currently involved in the project Review of Comparative Research on Educational Performances (RECOMPED) financed by the Swedish Research Council, is a member of the research group STEP, Studies in Educational Policy and Educational Philosophy, at Uppsala University and a member of the editorial board of the Nordic Journal of Studies in educational Policy.
Henrik Román is a PhD researcher and a senior lecturer at the Department of Education, Uppsala University. His main research interests are education policy and curriculum studies, generally from a historical perspective. His PhD thesis in 2006 was an analysis of how the huge transformation of the Swedish school system in the 1960s and 1970s affected the Swedish subject. Román has since then taken part in a comparative and historical project on assessment cultures in Sweden and Germany, and has produced a series of historical studies on municipal school policy. Since 2014 Román has headed the three year-project ‘Who Has Governed the Swedish School?’ In this project, which is financed by the Swedish Research Council, Román and his three fellow researchers will compare municipal school policy actions in four diverse Swedish municipalities from 1950 until the present time.
Kirsten Sivesind is an associate professor in the Department of Teacher Education and School Research, University of Oslo, Norway. Her published work includes ‘Mixed Images and Merging Semantics in European Curricula’, Journal of Curriculum Studies, 1(2013); ‘The European Curriculum: restructuring and renewal’, a Special Issue (edited by Sivesind together with Moritz Rosenmund and Jan van der Akker), European Educational Research Journal, 3(2012); and (with Berit Karseth) ‘Conceptualising Curriculum Knowledge within and beyond the National Context’, European Journal of Education, 45(1), 2010.
Daniel Sundberg is Associate Professor at the Department of Educational Science, Linnaeus University, Sweden. His research interests include comparative and historical perspectives on curriculum, schooling and society. Sundberg is chairing the research network ERECKS (Educational Reforms and Educational Knowledge in Europe) financed by the Swedish Research Council and is a member of several national and international commissions. Recent publications deal with curriculum theory and policy making in terms of understanding and explaining curriculum making in the complex interconnection of transnational and national contexts and its endogenous as well as exogenous forces and determinants.
Ninni Wahlström is Professor of Education at Linnæus University in Sweden. Her research interests are curriculum theory, with a broad interpretation of the concept which includes an interest in educational policy, pedagogy and educational philosophy. Currently, she leads a research project involving a theory-based evaluation of the Swedish curriculum for compulsory school, where the three arenas, the institutional, the programmatic, and the classroom arena, are analysed.